DAppsWhat Are Decentralized Applications (DApps)?

Decentralized applications (DApps) are digital applications or programs that exist and run on a blockchain or peer-to-peer (P2P) network of computers instead of a single computer. DApps are thus outside the purview and control of a single authority.

Understanding Decentralized Applications

A standard web app, such as Uber or Twitter, runs on a computer system owned and operated by an organization, giving it full authority over the app and its workings. Multiple users may be on one side, but a single organization controls the backend.

DApps can run on a P2P network or a blockchain network. In the context of cryptocurrencies, DApps run on a blockchain network in public, open-source, decentralized environment and are free from control and interference by any single authority. For example, a developer can create a Twitter-like DApp and put it on a blockchain where users can publish messages. Once posted, no one—including the app creators—can delete the messages.

DApp Uses

DApps have been developed to decentralize and disintermediate various functions and applications. These include things from self-executing financial contracts to multi-user games and social media platforms. DApps have also been designed to facilitate secure, blockchain-based voting and governance. DApps can also be integrated into web browsers to function as plugins that can help serve ads, track user behavior, and solicit crypto donations.


Some examples of practical uses for DApps include:

  • Financial services: DApps can facilitate peer-to-peer financial transactions, such as the exchange of currencies or the transfer of assets.
  • Supply chain management: DApps can track the movement of goods through a supply chain, ensuring transparency and accountability.
  • Identity verification: DApps can securely store and verify identity information, such as voting systems or passport applications.
  • Real estate: DApps can facilitate the buying and selling of real estate directly between buyer and seller, as well as the tracking of property ownership and related documentation such as deeds.
  • Healthcare: DApps can be used to store and track healthcare records and facilitate healthcare professionals' communication and collaboration.
  • Education: DApps can create decentralized learning platforms, allowing students and teachers to interact and collaborate without intermediaries.
  • Social media: DApps can create decentralized platforms, allowing users to interact and share content without needing a central authority.
  • Predictive markets: DApps can be used to create decentralized platforms for predictive markets, allowing users to make predictions on various topics and earn rewards for accurate predictions.

DApp Scams

Several scams have been perpetrated through decentralized applications (DApps). Ponzi schemes, in which earlier investors are paid using the investments of more recent investors, have been known to occur on DApps. Fake initial coin offerings (ICOs) have also been used to raise funds for developing a new cryptocurrency or DApp. They are designed to steal investors' money without creating a viable product.

Phishing attacks, which use fake websites or emails to trick people into revealing sensitive information, have also been seen on DApps. In addition, some DApps have been used to distribute malware or viruses, which can compromise users' devices and steal sensitive information. It is essential for users to be cautious and do their due diligence when interacting with DApps, as the decentralized nature of these applications can make it difficult to track or hold perpetrators accountable.

Industry analytics group DappRadar found a record 312 hacks and vulnerabilities affecting DApps in 2022, leading to losses of around $48 billion.

Advantages and Disadvantages of DApps


Many of the benefits of DApps center around the program's ability to safeguard user privacy. With decentralized apps, users do not need to submit their personal information to use the app's function. DApps use smart contracts to complete transactions between two anonymous parties without relying on a central authority.

Proponents interested in free speech point out that DApps can be developed as alternative social media platforms. A decentralized social media platform would resist censorship because no blockchain participant can delete or block messages from being posted.


There are questions about whether the applications will scale effectively, mainly if an app requires significant computations and overloads a network, causing network congestion.

The ability to develop a user-friendly interface is another concern. Most users of apps developed by traditional centralized institutions have an ease-of-use expectation that encourages them to use and interact with the app. Getting people to transition to DApps will require developers to create an end-user experience and level of performance that rivals already popular and established programs.

The challenge of doing code modifications is another limitation of DApps. Once deployed, a DApp will likely need ongoing changes to make enhancements or to correct bugs or security risks. According to Ethereum, it can be challenging for developers to update DApps because the data and code published to the blockchain are hard to modify.


  • Promotes user privacy
  • Resists censorship
  • A flexible platform enables DApp development


  • Experimental may not be able to scale
  • Challenges in developing a user-friendly interface
  • Challenging to make needed code modifications

What Is the Difference Between a Centralized and a Decentralized App?

A single company owns a centralized app. The application software for a centralized app resides on one or more servers controlled by the company. As a user, you'll interact with the app by downloading a copy of the app and then sending and receiving data back and forth from the company's server.

A decentralized app (also known as a DApp) operates on a blockchain or peer-to-peer network of computers. It enables users to transact directly with one another instead of relying on a central authority. The user of a DApp will pay the developer an amount of cryptocurrency to download and use the program's source code. The source code is a smart contract, allowing users to complete transactions without revealing personal information.


Decentralized applications (DApps) are digital applications or programs that run on a decentralized network rather than a single computer or server. They are built on blockchain technology and use cryptocurrency to exchange. DApps are designed to be open-source, transparent, and resistant to censorship, allowing users to interact directly with the application without intermediaries. They have the potential to disrupt traditional industries by allowing for peer-to-peer interactions and transactions without the need for a central authority.

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